Periodontal disease is a gradual infection of the gums and the supporting bone. It is caused when the build up of plaque on and around the teeth calcifies into tartar. This tartar is covered with plaque that contains micro- organisms which release toxins causing the first stage of gum disease.
Because the early stages of periodontal diseases are usually painless, it can be difficult to detect. Some of the signs and symptoms of developing periodontal disease include the following:
- Bleeding gum
- Loose teeth
- Increased spaces between teeth
- Persistent bad breath
- Pus around the gums and teeth
- Receding gums around a tooth
- Red and inflamed gums
- Tenderness and discomfort
Periodontal Disease Stages
- Gingivitis is an early stage of gum disease. Gums become tender, swollen and likely to bleed.
This generally can be stopped with proper oral hygiene and treatment from your dentist.
- Periodontitis (moderate) stage where the gums deteriorate and begin detaching themselves
from the teeth forming gum pockets, which allows plaque to collect below the gum line.
This causes tooth roots to become susceptible to decay.
- Periodontitis (advanced) stage is where a radical amount of gum tissue and bone tissue is lost.
Teeth become loose and may even need to be extracted. This causes difficulties in normal everyday
chewing and biting habits.
Scaling & Root Planing
Scaling and root planing is a non-surgical gum treatment , in which the dentist or the hygienist removes plaque and tartar from below the gum line. Root surfaces are cleaned and smoothed with specially designed instruments and ultra-sonic scaler. It is important to remove the plaque and tartar from the pockets, because aside from the bacterial toxins that irritate the gums, plaque and the rough surfaces of tartar make it easier for bacteria to gain a foothold.